Sanctification

The Manifold Significance of the Resurrection (Part 3.2) – New Creation and the Individual

A dense and layered truth rests in a person’s hands when he or she scrutinises the resurrection. It is for this reason that I have required several posts in order to delve into it and explicate its “manifold significance” (to borrow from my title). Following my exploration of the interweaving connections between resurrection, justification and sanctification, my last post on this topic was an examination of the victory of Christ as a paradigm for a new order, indeed, a new creation. That, as I have said, takes place on a multiplicity of levels. Having looked at the model and first step of new creation, it is now time to turn my attention to what it means for individuals. Using the creational motif that I have employed previously (and which the Bible itself uses as an overarching theological theme to help elucidate the redemptive work of God), I shall attempt to offer a glimpse of the ultimate goal of justified, sanctified Christian life, of which the resurrection is the pattern. The New Testament is replete with references to resurrection, new life and the consummation of salvation as they pertain to individuals. And, although a comprehensive look at what the NT says on the matter is impossible, no account of resurrection as the fresh creation of believers can be considered faithful to its witness without a cursory glance (and hopefully more) at the statements that compose it. The NT, both explicitly and implicitly, makes the astonishing suggestion that those who have been united to Christ will participate in his resurrection. It has not simply secured our initial justification; nor has it merely provided us with new, spiritual life in the present. Rather, it takes up both those stages of a Christian’s salvation, and completes them in his or her total reception of new life. It is something Scripture depicts as a recapitulation of the original creation of humanity; and yet, it passes well beyond the first fashioning of God’s image-bearers to a kind of existence that is beyond death, chaos and decay. I want to make all this plain, but in order to do that, I must also challenge popular notions of Christian hope: not so that long-cherished beliefs are destroyed, but so that the actual truth of a person’s resurrection – according to the riches of Christian theology – may become clear. I shall say more in due time.

But first, traversing over old terrain is, perhaps, necessary. As I noted in earlier essays on this topic, a person is neither justified nor sanctified if Jesus is still in the grave. In like manner, no one has escaped death if Jesus himself – the true man and humanity’s representative – did not triumph over it. The notion of new creation is but a forlorn hope without it. As the Apostle Paul emphatically states in 1 Corinthians: “…if Christ is not raised, your faith is futile; you are still in your sins…If only for this life we have hope in Christ, we are to be pitied more than all men” (1 Cor. 15: 17, 19). But if Jesus has been raised from the dead (and I believe he has), then this life is not the end. The present creation will pass away, but only so a new creation can take its place. And those of us who are “in Christ” and united to him will receive the blessed gift of new, incorruptible life. To put it another way: death could not maintain mastery over Christ, for the Creator and source of all life could never be held by it. In like manner, all who belong to Christ will share in that same release, precisely because they share in his paradigmatic act. Such is the strength of this fact that Jesus himself could call believers “…sons of the resurrection” (Luke 20:36).

We must examine more closely the connection between Christ’s resurrection and the new life accorded to those who are united to him. Romans 6:1-9, which I surveyed previously, is a good place to start. After dispensing with the hypothetical argument made against his case for salvation through the grace of God, Paul speaks of believers having been baptised into Christ’s death (v.3). If that be the case, Paul effectively asks, then a person has been separated from sin; it no longer has mastery over them. Just like Jesus, we who are “in” him (that is, united to him spiritually) are raised to “new life” – something Paul emphasises in verse 4. That new life has been secured by Christ’s death and resurrection; we cannot isolate them. It is because of the triumph of the one man, Jesus (which I examined in the previous essay on this topic), that any one of us can be said to have new life. Death to sin is, by itself, meaningless. In commenting on this passage, I. Howard Marshall puts it this way:

“…the baptized could be said have died to their old life in which they were under captivity to sin…But this would be no freedom if the believers were simply dead rather than passing through death into a new sphere of existence” (New Testament Theology: Many Witnesses, One Gospel, p.317).

That “new sphere of existence” is patterned on the inaugurating work of Jesus. He died his death to sin, but because he has been raised from the dead, never to die again, death cannot have mastery over him (Rom.6:9). We who are united to him in his death are thus united to him in his life.

To be sure, this certainty is a future expectation (though it emphatically commences in the present). Still, the point is that it will happen. What has already begun in the life of a follower of Jesus will be completed, consummated – radically fulfilled – by the same Spirit that brooded over the waters as he preserved God’s original creation (Gen. 1:2; cf. 8:11). What was subject to decay and death will be immersed, if you like, in immortality. What was perishable will become imperishable. What was vulnerable to the fatal effects of sin will be impervious to them. One day, a believer’s body will leave behind the fetters of mortality for good, and death will be “swallowed up in victory” (1 Corinthians 15:50-54). Incidentally, it is here that a connection between individual new creation, justification and sanctification becomes apparent. Having already spoken of resurrection’s importance to these stages of the Christian life, I will not detain readers with a detailed recapitulation. Suffice it to say, if justification is God’s judicial act of counting someone righteous, what could better reflect the consummation of that initial decision than one’s final resurrection, one’s new creation? In the Gospel of John, marked as it is by a creational-redemptive framework, Jesus himself touched upon this. Using the forensic language often linked to justification, he said that those who have “done good” will enjoy resurrection and life at the end (see John 5:29). Similarly, if sanctification is the progressive unfolding of righteousness in a believer – and, with it, the progressive erasure of sin – then the consequences thereof (ie. death) will eventually be vanquished. The notion of resurrection forms the ground and the goal of sanctification, and, therefore, new creation.

At this point, the reality of the larger narrative of new creation, and its relevance to the individual, has simply been implied. But, as these passages suggest, the paradigm of Christ’s life cannot be understood apart from the notion that his resurrection was the first step in God’s efforts to re-make his world – to redeem it from death, and to inaugurate, in effect, a new creative order. The fate of individuals sits snugly within that project. Nevertheless, we do not have to travel far in order to see how explicit the idea is at certain points, particularly in light of the prominence of the original creation as a theological motif for many of the NT writers. One might easily point to John 3, which famously has Jesus exhorting Nicodemus to be “born again”. The phrase itself evokes images of new life, in keeping with John’s overall theological scheme. But we may also look to places such as 1 Corinthians 15, Hebrews 2:5-9, or even 2 Corinthians 5:17 – a verse which uses the precise phrase “new creation” – to see how the concept has woven its way into the structure of apostolic thinking. To take just one example: 1 Corinthians 15, to which I have already alluded. Before Paul embarks on an extended discussion on the necessity of the resurrection of believers, he sharply contrasts two, paradigmatic men. On the one hand, lies the first Adam; on the other, the second Adam, Jesus (1 Cor. 15:45-49). The former, Paul says, was of the earth – mortal, finite, vulnerable to corruption. The latter, however, was of heaven – immortal, infinite, free from spot or blemish. The point is that the apostle deliberately invokes Adam as a motif, in order to draw a contrast between two “creations”, or “reigns”. The first man was the head of a humanity prone to sin and death, as the Bible’s opening book points out (cf. Gen. 1-3). The latter man was, and is, the representative of a humanity that will enjoy his likeness (cf. v.49).

Talk of new life, even resurrection, is all well and good. However, it is important to speak about what kind of life this will be, for even the notion of resurrection can be misunderstood. When the authors of the NT speak of new life, they do so with a degree of specificity. It is not the case that Paul and others were envisioning some vague kind of existence beyond the material world. To do so would have negated the goodness of God’s creative work, and undermined the thematic power of the original, material world. Ancient Greeks believed in the immortality of the soul; popular, present-day renditions of the afterlife imagine disembodied spirits enjoying some manner of heavenly joy in the hereafter. But if we look to the Apostle to the Gentiles for a moment, we find him speaking deliberately of resurrection. As N.T. Wright has commented, the term was only ever used to denote “re-embodiment, not…disembodied bliss”. Indeed, in Rom. 6:5, which we have already surveyed, Paul states that those of us who have been united to Christ in his death will certainly be united to him in his “resurrection”. Erroneous imaginings of ultimate Christian hope notwithstanding, resurrection was seen as a bodily, material phenomenon. It was certainly a new mode of existence, to be sure. But that newness was viewed as emphatically physical. Christ’s triumph over death only makes sense because his resurrection was bodily in nature. In the same way, those of us who have escaped the old life, held in bondage to sin and death, will take on new bodies. New life will be transmuted, but it will definitely remain physical. By the same token, if new life remains physical, then it will definitely be transmuted. As Leon Morris has said:

“The Christians thought of the body as being raised. But also transformed so as to be a suitable vehicle for the very different life of the age to come” (New Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, p.1010. Emphasis mine).

If the resurrection of Jesus – being bodily in nature – is the ground for the new creation of the individual, then it seems that our redemption will follow his representative act. As I have noted, he is the pattern. He is the “firstborn from amongst the dead” (Colossians 1:18). And if that be the case, then our resurrection will be like his; “we shall be like him”, as it were (1 John 3:2). Paul’s letter to the Romans is once again instructive.  In chapter 8, we find the apostle talking about life in the Spirit. In the present, the Spirit changes and transforms a believer’s spiritual and moral life. In the future, though, all of one’s life will be transformed, including his or her body. It will be a complete and total change. We might look at 8:11, for example. Once more, Paul suggests that the new life of a Christian is patterned on the resurrection life of Christ. The Spirit who raised Jesus from the dead will certainly “give life to” one’s “mortal body”. Nothing in this verse implies an escape from the body. In fact, it suggests quite the opposite: an enlivening addition to the present “body of death” (Rom. 7:24). It may constitute a radical transformation, but one that does not abandon the material realm. We should not think that it would be otherwise. And, with Paul’s multiple allusions to freedom, redemption, and creation itself (cf. Rom. 8:19-25), it is clear that for the apostle, a believer’s ultimate hope rests in a renewed creation – that of God’s world, redeemed from the bondage of death, and of those who will receive bodies fit to dwell within it.

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The drama of God’s redemptive activity, being played out on the stage of history and creation, is also being played out in the life of every believer. New creation will occur, not just on a cosmic scale, but on an individual one, too. What will happen universally is happening now, in the present, in the lives of believers. The triumph of the resurrection means that the old creation is passing away. All this is through Jesus Christ, who was the primary agent of both creation and new creation (see John 1:1-3). His own resurrection was the climax of his redemptive agency, and constitutes the model for believers. Those of us who have embraced that triumph will participate in his triumph, and, as members of both the old creation and the new, we have the unique privilege of seeing that sanctifying transformation happen in our midst. Christ’s resurrection body served as the first sign of new creation. Our own bodies, having already been enveloped by the Spirit, are also signs that the old has gone, and the new has come. We may still be vessels of broken clay, living in an ambiguous period between the announcement of God’s reign, and its final coming. Nonetheless, if new creation is a reality, then it is a reality that begins as a seed within each believing individual. That seed – that new birth, if you like – anticipates the wider renewal that will embrace a groaning world, as it waits on tiptoe for the children of God to be revealed. That, however, is the subject for a future post.

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The Manifold Significance of the Resurrection (Part Two)

It is something I have said several times now, but it bears repeating: the multidimensional brilliance of the resurrection is almost inexhaustible. That is why a single essay on the topic cannot possibly hope to provide a comprehensive account of its significance. Only by considering each dimension in turn can a satisfying picture of the sequel to the crucifixion be realized.

It is with that preamble in mind that I turn to the resurrection and its relationship to sanctification. Already, I have explored the way in which the resurrection actually secures, completes and verifies a change in our legal standing before God. But its power and relevance extend into the realm of sanctified living: the progressive erasure of the effects of the old life, marked as it was by sin; and the gradual, life-long envelopment of the new life, into which Christians have been “born” and into which they grow. It is because of the resurrection that we may be assured of our own success in the defeat of sin (at least those of us who have accepted the tenets of Christianity and the person of Christ himself).

I turn to a book of the Bible that I have turned to a number of times recently in order to explore the relationship between the resurrection and sanctification: Paul’s epistle to the Romans. Chapter 6 of that book deals with the issue of sanctification, and our apostle makes several references to the raising of Christ as a foundation for the purification of Christians. Let’s look at the chapter more closely, starting with Romans 6:4:

“We were therefore buried with him [Christ] through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life”.

Paul makes a startling statement: we who have given our lives to Christ have been “buried” with him through baptism. Without digressing too much, the apostle offers us a picture of baptism rich in theological symbolism. Baptism is much more than a lingering tradition; it constitutes the outward symbolical expression of an inward, spiritual shift. Namely, it represents the transfer of our lives from the reign of sin and death – the end of which could only come about through the finality of Christ’s sacrificial death, and our participation through baptism – to freedom from those pernicious forces (cf. v.7) under the reign of God’s righteousness.

Of course, the outworking of that process takes place over a lifetime. Although the judicial transfer happens the moment we accept the message of the gospel, sanctified living, free from sin and unrighteousness, is an unfolding experience. Nevertheless, like justification, sanctification cannot operate without the reality of the resurrection. Let’s look again at 6:4. Paul explicitly grounds the fact of Christians’ new lives in the fact of Christ’s new life (resurrection). On our behalf, he took on the penalty, the pain – the wretched effects – of sin. And on our behalf, God raised Christ from the dead, as a prototype for the newness of life he will bestow upon those who have already been justified by him. The one depends on the other. For if Christ did not leave the tomb, then the reign of sin and death would still be present. The fact that he has discarded the graveclothes for the new garment of resurrection life means that our striving for holy lives (in the power of the Spirit, of course – see Rom. 8:4-13, for example) is not futile. Not at all, since it is done – or ought to be done – in the knowledge that God has already defeated these forces through the One to whom we are united.

Paul goes on talk about our being united with Christ, not only in his death, but also in his resurrection (verse 5). He declares that those who are united to Christ in his death will “certainly” be united with him in his resurrection. The two halves of God’s salvific work cannot – indeed, must not – be separated. If we participate in Christ’s death by putting to death the sinful nature (cf. v.6), then we will surely participate in the newness of life he experienced at his resurrection. The conclusion – our “death” with Christ is one of separation. The reign of sin has come to a conclusive end; we have been freed from it (v.7). Our apostle is explicit in outlining the consequences. Because we have been separated from sin (in other words, it has been put to death in us because we have appropriated the benefits of Christ’s death), we must now offer ourselves to God instead of offering ourselves to corruption (vv.11-13). We have crucified the old nature, the old life, on the cross. Our obligation now is to live our lives to God. But again – all this is futile if Christ himself did not gain mastery over death. For if he did not, then sin is certainly still at work, and every effort made to prevent its reign is bound to fail.

Paul is certainly aware of the logic of this supposition. For he states in verse 9 that Christ was raised from the dead, so that the death he died to sin, he died once-and-for-all; death (and sin) can no longer have its way with him. It is a defeated foe. And because it is a defeated foe, we can be assured that our own participation in Christ’s crucifixion – through the sacrificial pursuit of holiness – is not an exercise in fruitless denial; still less is it a bad joke that has us trying to do what is actually impossible. The ideal of a sanctified life is not a denial of what is, and always will be, the case. It is rather the promise of a life that will forever be freed from the predations of sin and death, grounded in the tangible evidence of the resurrection itself.

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Matthew Barrett, a Christian author and blogger, wrote recently on this topic (“The Neglected Resurrection,” The Gospel Coalition, April 5th, 2012). He finished by quoting Paul’s admonition to the Colossians, which is certainly apt here:

“If you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on earthly things. For you died, and your life is now hidden with Christ in God. When Christ, who is your life, appears, then you also will appear with him in glory” (Col. 3:1-4).

Amen. We ought to focus on the godly, spiritual things in this life, for we know that our lives are no longer beholden to sin – and as a consequence, the shadow of death. Christ’s own resurrection is proof of that glorious fact. It is also a present reality in our lives, bursting the boundaries of history to transform each Christian as he or she walks in newness of life. Of course, sin still knocks at our door; it still beckons us, and bids us to come. However, the past triumphs of the One in whom we trust will be fulfilled. For as Paul says, when Christ appears (referring to his second advent) we, too, shall appear in glory. Our present yearnings for holiness – such as they are – and the present work of God to sanctify us will not come to nothing; they will be fulfilled in our glorification, of which Christ’s resurrection was both the model and the promise. Indeed, we can be assured that in living by the Spirit and separating ourselves from sin, we are engaging in a task that God will consummate, precisely because he has provided us with embodied evidence that sin and death are vanquished. It is a challenge, but also an encouragement, to pursue and receive the sanctifying grace of God in Christ.